Harpastum was a form of a small ball game played in the Roman Empire. Galen recommended it as a better way of exercising the whole body than doing wrestling or running. Little is known about its rules, but the game was quite violent as some players could end up with broken legs. Some think that harpastum was the ancestor of the modern rugby.
The ancient Greek unarmed combat system known as Pankration has turned into Olympic sport in the 7th century BC. In the 20th century AD, it was revived and today number of sport schools of Pankration exist. The International Federation of Pankration strives to the reinstate the Pankration in the sport disciplines of the modern Olympic Games.