Direct screw-pressing (part two) | Nomadic Commerce
In Ghana and Nigeria the earliest equipment introduced was the Stork manual hydraulic press. Two types of digesters were developed: horizontal digesters based on the dry process technique; and the vertical digester, which adopts the wet process technique. The mechanical digesters currently in use consist of a cylindrical shell and a system of beater-arms driven by a 6 hp. diesel engine through a speed reducer (where necessary).
Traditional techniques and innovations in small-scale Palm Oil processing | Nomadic Commerce
Regarding the mechanical extraction, pounding (digestion) and oil extraction are the most tedious and essential operations in traditional palm fruit processing. In small-scale processing, digestion, the breaking up of the oil-bearing cells of the palm fruit’s mesocarp, is the most labour intensive.
Process technology/capital investment (consideration five) | Nomadic Commerce
To implement a Palm Oil plantation in rural villages you have to consider that most villages do not have electricity and hence the diesel engine is the main source of power. For cost reasons there cannot be a multiplicity of these engines to drive the required unit operations. The power source acts as a limitation to the number of unit operations that can be mechanised and powered. Systems of pulleys and gears to drive operational machines should be actively considered when designing for…
Process technology/capital investment (consideration four) | Nomadic Commerce
Palm Oil operating philosophy for equipment innovationin rural villages should therefore be an attempt to develop machinery to alleviate the drudgery of female processors while providing additional avenues for the employment of those displaced by the improved technologies, keeping some operations labour-intensive. It is therefore important to mechanise the key drudgery-alleviation equipment that can be easily handled by women.
Process technology/capital investment (consideration three) | Nomadic Commerce
“Small-scale” Palm Oil plantation does not necessarily mean a significant decrease in efficiency. It does, however, mean a reduction in working capital and operating costs. The small mills can be placed at the heart of local communities, minimising reliance on vehicular transport that is normally unavailable in rural communities.
Process technology/capital investment (consideration two) | Nomadic Commerce
A limiting condition is the affordability of capital equipment. Where the capital equipment cost exceeds a certain value villagers will shy away from taking loans to purchase the combination of operations. It is imperative that unnecessary mechanised unit operations are eliminated. Work that can be done manually should be, thereby taking advantage of surplus labour and creating a stream of wages and salaries in the local community.
Process technology/capital investment (consideration one) | Nomadic Commerce
Many of the installations that use single spindle and manual hydraulic press units require manual pounding with wooden mortars and pestles, foot stomping, etc. Thus the throughput capacity of such a mill is determined by the manual pounding rate. The presses are usually not mechanised and hence the processing capacity of the press is also limited by the size of the press cage and the operator’s energy level for turning the press screw or pumping the hydraulic fluid mechanism.
Process technology/capital investment | Nomadic Commerce
Depending from the plant size, it need to have nearby a processing systems capable to work with the amount produced. So that the amount of money required to buy the necessary machinery can be calculated. The market provides a wide array of machinery options. This makes possible for a processor to start operations with a manual spindle-press used to pound the palm frui and invest year by year to improve the machinery park. Follow the link to read more.
Plant Sizing (part five) | Nomadic Commerce
Large-scale operationsin Palm Oil require high-skilled labour and management expertise. Most villages do not have such a pool of skilled labour. The villages in rural Africa lack the social infrastructure such as good accommodation, schools and hospitals that would attract high-skilled labour. In order to establish a large-scale processing operation, labour needs to be imported from other parts of the country. Follow the link to read more.
Plant Sizing (part three) | Nomadic Commerce
The oil palm tree yield is distributed over the entire year. Most of Central and West Africa experience two rainfall seasons. The oil palm bears fruit in response to the rainfall pattern and hence there are two peak harvesting periods in these regions. Follow the link to see the year distribution.
Plant Sizing (part two) | Nomadic Commerce
Estimates in Table 3 are used to calculate the expected annual yield for each annual block. 8 700 seedlings planted in 1998 began to yield fruit in 2000 at the rate of 3 tonnes per hectare. Different areas planted in different times will be in production, at different yield rates. Follow the link to see the table.
Plant Sizing (part one) | Nomadic Commerce
The oil palm tree begins to bear fruit from the third year and the yield per tree increases progressively with age until it peaks around 20 years. The yield begins to decline from year 25 through 40 when the economic life of the tree ends. Follow the link to read more.
Semi-continuous systems | Nomadic Commerce
Continuous systems work sequentially, with one operation feeding directly into another, related to the arrangement and timing of machine operations. Some machines have to be stopped periodically for other stations to catch up. When there are discontinuities in the flow of materials between process stations the operations are known as semi-continuous. Follow the link to read more.