Sultan Mahmood the second - Ottoman Empire

Henri-Guillaume Schlesinger Portrait of Mahmud II,

One of Queen Victoria's Turkish brooches - In June 1838, soon after her coronation, Queen Victoria received a star-shaped brooch of emeralds and diamonds from Sultan Mahmud II. In the centre of the brooch is the Sultan’s tughra in brilliant cut diamonds. The tughra is the Sultan’s personal calligraphic monogram which was affixed to all official documents, correspondence, coins and seals. The tughra of Mahmud II reads: ‘Mahmud Khan son of Abdülhamid is forever victorious’.

Emerald and Diamond Brooch - One of Queen Victoria's Turkish brooches - coronation gift from Sultan Mahmud II. In the centre of the brooch is the Sultan’s tughra in brilliant cut diamonds. The tughra is the Sultan’s personal calligraphic monogram.

Mahmud II before his clothing reform in 1826. - Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (Turkish: II. Mahmud) (20 July 1789 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839. He was born in the Topkapi Palace, Constantinople, the posthumous son of Sultan Abdulhamid I.

Mahmud II by John Young - Mahmud II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Tanzimât (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), literally meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. The Portrait of Sultan Mahmud II in 1830-Tanzimât reform era was characterized by various attempts to modernize the Ottoman Empire and to secure its territorial integrity against nationalist movements from within and aggressive powers from outside of the state. The reforms encouraged Ottomanism…

Portrait of the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II after his clothing reforms.

Calligrapher/ Hattat: Sultan of the Ottoman Mahmud II (1784-1839) Mahmud II, was taught the art of calligraphy first by Gebecizade Mehmet Vasfi Efendi and later by Ustad Mustafa Rakim. Sultan II.Mahmud 'un hat çalışması 18.yy:

Calligrapher/ Hattat: Sultan of the Ottoman Mahmud II (1784-1839) Mahmud II, was taught the art of calligraphy first by Gebecizade Mehmet Vasfi Efendi and later by Ustad Mustafa Rakim. Sultan II.Mahmud 'un hat çalışması 18.yy:

Sultan Mahmud II - Google Arts & Culture

After his dress reform in the sultan is depicted in a frock coat, trousers, mantle and fez which is a way of dressing spread throughout the empire.

Calligrapher/ Hattat: Sultan of the Ottoman Mahmud II (1784-1839) Mahmud II, was taught the art of calligraphy first by Gebecizade Mehmet Vasfi Efendi and later by Ustad Mustafa Rakim. Sakıp Sabancı Museum, collection İstanbul Sultan II.Mahmud 'un imzası olan bir hat levhası (II. Mahmud'un yazı hocası Hattat Mustafa Rakım) Sakıp Sabancı Müzesi koleksiyonu '''ve ma tevfiki illa billah'''( (''Başarım ancak Allahın yardımı iledir.''):

Calligrapher/ Hattat: Sultan of the Ottoman Mahmud II (1784-1839) Mahmud II, was taught the art of calligraphy first by Gebecizade Mehmet Vasfi Efendi and later by Ustad Mustafa Rakim. Sakıp Sabancı Museum, collection İstanbul Sultan II.Mahmud 'un imzası olan bir hat levhası (II. Mahmud'un yazı hocası Hattat Mustafa Rakım) Sakıp Sabancı Müzesi koleksiyonu '''ve ma tevfiki illa billah'''( (''Başarım ancak Allahın yardımı iledir.''):

OTTOMAN GOLD, SULTAN MAHMUD II, 1818 Osmanlı Altını, Sultan Mahmud II, 1818

The exchange of gold continues to rise in reputation because of economic instances.

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