Eleanor of Aquitane (1124-1204) - one of the wealthiest and most powerful women of the High Middle Ages. She was queen of both France and England and mother to three kings (including Richard I, the Lionheart) and two queens. She was as influential in literary circles as in political, and she was the patron of many writers and troubadours.
Sir William Stanley. Soldier who fought in the Wars of the Roses. Born Lancashire. Originally a Yorkist, he switched sides and in 1485 fought at Bosworth Field for Tudor Henry VII, for which he was appointed Lord Chancellor. But he was accused of treasonable support of Perkin Warbeck and beheaded on Tower Hill.
Lancastrian Rose. Coram Rege Roll of Henry VII. The roll records court proceedings that were supposed to be carried out before the king in person (coram rege), although that was rarely true. The rolls often include a portrait of the monarch as if to suggest this presence but here the red rose of Lancaster stands in for King Henry VII, c 1500.
Wars of the Roses fought in medieval England 1455-1485 between House Lancaster & House York. Name is based on badges used by the 2 sides,red rose for the Lancastrians & white rose for the Yorkists. Major causes of the conflict: both houses direct descendants of king Edward III; ruling Lancastrian king, Henry VI w/ unpopular nobles;civil unrest w/ pop.; lords with private armies; & episodes of mental illness by Henry VI.Wars ended when Richard III(last Yorkist king)defeated @ Bosworth in 1485...
Henry 'Bolingbroke' was the son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. Bolingbroke didn't make it a secret that he thought Richard II was a lousy king and unfit to rule. Richard banished him, and then stole his inheritance (and his title) when Gaunt died. Henry returned to claim his estates, saying that he just wanted back what was rightfully his. But he quite quickly changed his story -- he wanted to be king. He deposed Richard II and became Henry IV.